Comment: Europe’s answer to Brussels bombs may be more damaging than ISIS

Brussels airportIn the past year, the Islamic State has claimed responsibility for at least nine terrorist attacks on foreign capitals. The growing list, which features Jakarta, Tunis, Paris, Beirut, Ankara, and Kuwait City, now includes the Belgian capital, Brussels. At least 34 people died in the attacks that rocked Brussels’ Zaventum airport and Maelbeek metro station on March 22, while another 300 were injured, 60 of them critically. This week’s bombings officially constitute the bloodiest terrorist attacks in Belgium’s history, prompting the country’s government to declare three days of national mourning.

Why did the Islamic State attack one of Europe’s smallest countries, with a population of just over 11 million? Some have suggested that Brussels was targeted by the terrorist group because it was an easy target. Observers noted that Belgium’s security and intelligence services are underfunded and demoralized —a “weak link in Europe”, in the words of one expert. There is no question that Belgium’s security apparatus is in need of serious overhaul; but the need is equally great in Amsterdam, in Athens, in Madrid, in Dublin, and elsewhere in Europe. In fact, the Islamic State could have struck any of these European capitals with the same ease that it attacked Brussels —and might still do so.

In reality, the Islamic State’s decision to attack Brussels was carefully calculated and consistent with the group’s overall strategy. The primary reason that the Islamists attacked Brussels is that Belgium is one of 30 countries that actively participate in the Combined Joint Task Force, the international group behind Operation Inherent Resolve. Led by the United States military, the operation has been targeting Islamic State forces in Iraq and Syria since October 2014. The Islamic State wished to send a message to Europeans that their military intervention in the Middle East will be costly at home. Secondly, Brussels was struck because it is the headquarters of the European Union, which last month declared the Islamic State’s campaign against religious and ethnic minorities in Syria and Iraq as an act of genocide. Third, and perhaps most importantly, Belgium was targeted because a significant percentage of its population —as much as 7 percent by some estimates— is Muslim.

What is more, the degree of integration of Belgian Muslims in mainstream life is markedly limited and partly explains why so many of them —400 by some estimates, the highest per-capita number in Europe—have emigrated to Syria and Iraq in order to join the Islamic State. It is worth remembering that the Islamic State emerged as the de facto guarantor or Sunni Muslims by essentially provoking Iraq’s Shiites to attack and marginalize the country’s Sunni Arab minority. Following a series of Shiite attacks against Sunni communities in Iraq, which were part of a broader post-2003 sectarian conflict between Sunnis and Shiites, the Islamic State emerged as the protector of Sunni Arabs and has since fought against Syrian Alawites, Hezbollah, Iranian forces, Iraqi Shiites, and others. Its popular support in Iraq and Syria stems from the fear held by Sunni Arabs that, if the Islamic State is defeated, their communities will be exterminated by vengeful and unforgiving Shiites.

Having gained from sectarianism in the Middle East, the Islamic State is now implementing the same tactic in Europe. It is thus targeting countries like France and Belgium, which have significant Muslim populations, in order to provoke aggressive reactions against domestic Muslim communities. In other words, it expects that attacks like those in Belgium will favor extremist ideologies throughout the European continent, and in turn further-marginalize European Muslims. The rise of Islamophobia, the strengthening of extremist political parties, and the disintegration of European values such as acceptance and tolerance, are likely to create a new generation of disaffected European Muslim youth, many of whom will be prime candidates for Islamic State membership.

European societies must not allow the Islamic State to change the political identity of an entire continent through violence. Along with meticulous police and intelligence work, the bombs in Brussels must be answered with concerted attempts to deepen the social integration of European Muslims, and more broadly to promote cohesion between ethnic and religious groups in Europe. Anything short of that will provide the Islamic State with the same strategic advantage it has enjoyed in the Middle East for nearly a decade.

* Joseph Fitsanakis is Assistant Professor in the Intelligence and National Security Studies program at Coastal Carolina University in the United States.

5 Responses to Comment: Europe’s answer to Brussels bombs may be more damaging than ISIS

  1. MDC says:

    With all due respect I disagree with Dr. Fitsanakis regarding assimilation. I am afraid that at this point any attempt to integrate Muslim minority will encounter serious resistance by majority of population. Europeans have in the past look down on immigrants from Middle East but now they resent them. My opinion is that liberal governments of Europe created attractive environments for migrants whose only purpose was to import cheap labor for jobs that Europeans themselves do not want. Due to the way Europeans (and most of the rest of the world – except North America) look at immigrants it is almost impossible to fully integrate people that have completely different values and religion.
    High Lever Values are universal but that is not important when it comes to values derived from religion.

  2. TFH says:

    In simplistic terms one can imagine that if the IRA bombings had lead to a general ostracising of Irish people around the world then IRA would have got more reqruits around the world.

  3. TFH says:

    Brussel was an ideal target for several reasons, firstly because of lacking security and secondly because of NATO and EU head offices in that area. Terrorists want attention so after Washington Brussel is second and perhaps Moscow, Peking, Tokyo would come third.

  4. AlbertE. says:

    The assumption is made the Dr. Fitsanakis that the Muslim wants to integrate. Integrate but at your expense I fear. You must adjust to them and not the other way around. They become the head and you become the tail.

  5. Robert Marchenoir says:

    Enough with this politically correct canard. Muslims don’t get violent because Western societies don’t want to integrate them. They get violent because they don’t want to integrate. Instead, they are doing everything they can to integrate non-Muslims into Islam, and terror is part of that.

    So the answer is to exclude Muslims from the West. Please tell me how “integration” and “tolerance” towards Islam has worked in Dearborn, Michigan.

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